There are two types of statistics: descriptive and inferential [1].

Descriptive Statistics
describes and analyzes the given group. It provides measures of central tendency and dispersion.
Inferential Statistics
provides conclusions about the population inferred from analysis of the sample. Includes Sampling theory, Estimation theory, Decision theory.
1. M.R. Spiegel, D.P. Lindstrom, "Schaum's Easy Outline: Statistics," McGraw-Hill, 1999.

Statistics roadmap

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